Cryogenic treatment has been used in recent years to improve the performance of cutting tools. This study evaluated the machinability of a nickel-molybdenum-based super alloy using cryogenically treated (-80 celcius and -145 celcius) ceramic inserts under dry turning conditions. Three cutting speeds (350, 400, and 450 m/min), three feed rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm/rev), and a 1-mm fixed cutting depth were used in the turning tests. Experiments were conducted using the Taguchi orthogonal array L(27)design. The factors affecting the surface roughness (Ra) were determined via analysis of variance. The effect of cryogenic treatment type (shallow and deep), cutting speed, and feed rate on surface roughness was investigated. Results of the analysis determined that the feed rate was the major parameter that affected surface roughness and that the deep cryogenic treatment was more effective. The regression analysis confirmed that the experimental results and the predicted values were within the 95% confidence interval. The most effective parameter affecting the surface roughness was feed rate at a contribution of 57.9%. The contribution of the cutting tool type to the surface roughness was 28.5%. The results obtained showed that the surface roughness can be optimized for turning the Hastelloy c22 super alloy with the Taguchi method.