Nitrogen oxides and smoke emissions are the most significant emissions for the diesel engines. Especially, fuels containing high-level oxygen content can have potential to reduce smoke emissions significantly. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends (as an oxygenation additive for the diesel fuel) on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a small diesel engine. For this aim five-test fuels, B5 (contains 5% n-butanol and 95% diesel fuel in volume basis), B10, B15, B20 and neat diesel fuel, were prepared to test in a diesel engine. Tests were performed in a single cylinder, four stroke, unmodified, and naturally aspirated DI high speed diesel engine at constant engine speed (2600 rpm) and four different engine loads by using five-test fuels. The experimental test results showed that smoke opacity, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide emissions reduced while hydrocarbon emissions increased with the increasing n-butanol content in the fuel blends. In addition, there is an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption and in the brake thermal efficiency with increasing n-butanol content in fuel blends. Also, exhaust gas temperature decreased with increasing n-butanol content in the fuel blends. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.