© The Author(s) 2019.In this study, eco-grade thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), which includes 46% renewable content, was reinforced with date palm seed (DPS). Alkali and silane surface treatments were applied to DPS to increase the compatibility between DPS and TPU matrix. The oil of DPS was removed before treatments and surface functionalities of modified and pristine DPS samples were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Composites were fabricated using melt blending method and injection molding processes. Test samples of composites were characterized using tensile test, hardness test, water absorption study, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), melt flow index (MFI) test, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to test results, silane treatment led to remarkable improvement for mechanical performance of composites attributed to improvement of compatibility and interface adhesion between DPS and TPU. DMA results implied that higher storage modulus and glass transition temperature were achieved for treated DPS-containing composites compared to pristine DPS filled ones. Thermal stability of flexible segment of TPU increased with the addition of DPS regardless of surface treatment. Additionally, DPS loadings caused significant increase in MFI value of unfilled TPU. Silane-treated DPS-containing composite yielded the lowest water uptake value among samples due to the hydrophobicity of silane layer. Enrichment of interface adhesion of DPS to TPU matrix was confirmed by SEM micrographs of composites. Silane-treated DPS-containing composite displayed higher results among produced composites since the increase in interfacial interactions with TPU was achieved by silane treatment for DPS surface.