Surface coverage as one of the most effective parameters of shot peening process has substantial influence on the functionality of the peened component. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface coverage increase on the properties of treated specimens experimentally before and after re-shot peening. Different shot peening treatments from conventional to severe; were performed on the AISI 1045 steel. Microstructural observations and XRD measurements were applied to characterize the circumstance of microstructure changes. In order to investigate the mechanical properties, microhardness profiles were achieved, surface roughness was evaluated and the residual stresses distribution were measured using XRD method. The results indicate that severe shot peening processes that have high coverages are more effective techniques to obtain nanostructured surface layer and superior mechanical properties and moreover re-shot peening has influential effects to decrease the surface roughness.