Modern Turkey, now referred as the Republic of Turkey, which was founded on October 29, 1923, was constructed upon the heritage of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1923). The founder of the republic, often referred to as "the father of all Turks," Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938), adapted an agressive program of social and cultural change following the establishment of the government. He achieved these reforms by using European countries as models which was called "Westernization" or "Modernization." During this period, new military technology and an educational system was adopted from France. Although the Westernization movement in the Ottoman Empire began during the late 1800s with the intention of catching up on European nations (which surpassed the Ottomans in the areas of technology and education), Ataturk developed the movement further in the early 1900s. He created an efficient modern state which merged liberal and secular thoughts and blended Islamic values with Western liberalism. Regarding Turkish music education, the first music teacher training school, Musiki Muallim Mektebi (Music Teacher Training School), was opened in 1924 in Ankara, the capital city of the Republic of Turkey. In the present day, there are twenty-four music teacher training schools in Turkey and approximately 1,100 students are enrolled at these institutions.