Growing energy demand, environmental impact, energy security issues, and rural economic development have encouraged the development of sustainable renewable fuels. Nonfood lignocellulosic biomass is a suitable source for sustainable energy because the biomass feedstocks are low cost, abundant, and carbon neutral. Recent thermochemical conversion studies are frequently directed at converting biomass into high-quality liquid fuel precursors or chemicals in a single step. Supercritical ethanol has been selected as a promising solvent medium to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass because ethanol has extraordinary solubility towards lignocellulosic biomass and can be resourced from cellulosic ethanol facilities. This review provides a critical insight into both catalytic and noncatalytic strategies of lignocellulose deconstruction. In this context, the supercritical ethanol deconstruction pathways are thoroughly reviewed; GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis strategies towards liquid biomass deconstruction products are also critically presented. This review aims to provide readers a broad and accurate roadmap of novel biomass to biofuel conversion techniques.