© 2018, The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intracerebroventricular chronic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) infusion on hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis, energy metabolism, food intake and body weight. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and divided into three groups including control, sham (vehicle) and FGF21 infused groups (n = 10). Intracerebroventricularly, FGF21 and vehicle groups were infused for 7 days with FGF21 (0.72 µg/day) and artificial cerebrospinal fluid, respectively. During the experimental period, changes in food intake and body weight were recorded daily. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were measured using ELISA. TRH and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expressions were analyzed by using RT-PCR in hypothalamus and adipose tissues, respectively. Chronic infusion of FGF21 significantly increased serum TSH (p < 0.05), T3 (p < 0.05) and T4 (p < 0.001) levels. Additionally, hypothalamic TRH (p < 0.05) and UCP1 gene expressions (p < 0.05) in white adipose tissue were found to be higher than in the vehicle and control groups. While FGF21 infusion did not cause a significant change in food consumption, it caused a reduction in the body weight of rats (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that FGF21 may have an effect on energy metabolism via the HPT axis.