Ever-increasing energy costs and environmental restrictions have compelled researchers to focus on the reutilization of vast amounts of industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag, in energy extensive and material extensive industries such as iron-steel production and construction. Attempts to reutilize these waste materials all around the world have yielded successful results up to date, such that, in some of these attempts they even surpassed their intended use as blend or replacement materials and became serious rivals to their industrial counterparts. Various ways to reutilize these waste materials have been explored up to date, including waste heat recovery, clinker substitute in cement production, and a number of comparatively more value added applications. The ongoing attempts have come to a point that pushes the limits for more technological uses such as alternative ceramic coating materials in surface engineering applications. In this regard, this review study aims to provide an overview of and a collective approach to various uses of blast furnace and steelmaking slag in diverse applications and fields, with a view to provide insight into the current attempts to optimize or improve their use, as well as emerging trends as to the potential use of these waste materials in higher value-added applications. (c) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.