Residual stress is an elastic stress in remaining part after the various stages of production. If residual stress values in rails are known, mechanical properties of rails and their effects in railway can be predicted. For this purpose, residual stresses of rails which had same casting number were measured by cutting and X-ray diffraction method in this study. Five rails were used for measurement. Firstly, according to the EN 13674-1 which is railway rails standard, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus were used and one meter long rails were cut. After cutting, Hooke law was applied and residual stress values of rails were found. The residual stress values were around between 115 MPa and 180 MPa. In addition to standard residual stress measurement, X-ray diffraction method was used to compare between destructive and nondestructive techniques. Five specimens were taken from five rails in the appropriate size for X-ray device. In this method stress values were around between 200 and 400 MPa. After residual stress measurement, Brinell's hardness test was applied to three samples and microstructure of rail which has biggest residual stress value was examined by SEM. The results show that, residual stress values in cutting method were different from X-ray diffraction method and residual stress could affect the rails hardness.