Mercury in the environment that arises from organic and inorganic sources can cause irreversible damage to the nervous system. Toxicity may be direct or may arise from interactions with other metals in the environment. We evaluated the possible effects of mercury vapor on rat cerebellum. Twelve adult female rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to mercury vapor for 9 h/day for 45 days. Cerebellar tissue samples were evaluated using stereology and for histopathology. The total number of Purkinje cells was estimated using a physical disector method. We found that in the experimental group, overall volume decreased and the number of Purkinje cells was reduced. We also found cellular damage including pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm and vacuolization; these features were absent in the control group. We found that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury vapor is toxic to the cerebellum.