One of the well-known methods of severe plastic deformation (SPD), shot peening is widely used to improve the mechanical properties and fatigue behavior of metallic materials. The present study investigated experimentally the effects of different shot peening treatments of conventional and severe on the fatigue behavior of various carbon steels. A novel alternative approach has been proposed that utilizes the concept of artificial neural network to predict the fatigue life of carbon steels which are subjected to different shot peening treatments. The experimental results were employed to develop the network. After the results were modeled, it was indicated that the used neural network-based approach is greatly consistent with the experimental ones. Next, a comprehensive parametric analysis was performed while considering the influence of the effective parameters of shot peening on fatigue behavior.